How hard is obsidian. How hard is obsidian

Obsidian: The specimen shown above is approximately two inches (five centimeters) in diameter. Curved semi-concentric ridges are traces of fractures associated with rupture of the obsidian pinna. The rock has very sharp edges.

What is Obsidian?

Obsidian is an igneous rock that is formed when molten rock material cools down so quickly that the atoms are unable to form a crystalline structure. It is an amorphous material known as a “mineraloid”. The result is volcanic glass with a smooth uniform texture that breaks with a shell fracture (see photo).

Obsidian is typically an extruding rock – one that solidifies above the Earth’s surface. However, it can form in various cooling environments:

  • along the edge of the lava flow (extrusion)
  • along the edge of the volcanic dome (extrusion)
  • around the edge of a window sill or dike (intrusive)
  • where the lava meets the water (extrusion)
  • where the lava cools in the air (extrusion)

Obsidian from Glass Butte

Types of Obsidian: The specimens shown above are from the Glass Butte exploration site in central Oregon. It shows the variety of types of obsidian that can be found in a small geographic area. Clockwise from the top left are Dual Flow Obsidian, Rainbow Obsidian, Black Obsidian, Pumpkin Obsidian, Mahogany Obsidian, Golden Gloss Obsidian, and the center piece has a golden sheen. The nice photo above is from the Glass Butte Rockhounding Site on the Deschutes National Forest website.

Mahogany obsidian stone fell

Mahogany Obsidian: A polished specimen of “Mahogany Obsidian”. Image copyright iStockphoto / Arpad Benedek.

What Color is Obsidian?

Black is the most common color of obsidian. However, it can also be brown, light brown or green. Rarely, obsidian can be blue, red, orange, or yellow. The colors are thought to be mainly caused by trace elements or inclusions.

Sometimes the two colors of obsidian are mixed together in a single copy. The most common color combination is black and brown obsidian twisted together – this is called “mahogany obsidian” (see photo).

As “glass”, obsidian is chemically unstable. Some obsidian begins to crystallize over time. This process is not happening at the same pace throughout the scale. Instead, it starts at different places in the rock. At these points, the crystallization process creates radial clusters of white or gray cristobalite crystals within the obsidian. When cut and polished, these specimens are referred to as “snowflake obsidian” (see photos).

Rarely, obsidian has an iridescent or metallic “sheen” caused by light reflecting off tiny inclusions of mineral crystals, rock debris, or gas. These colorful specimens are known as “rainbow obsidian”, “golden obsidian” or “silver obsidian”, depending on the color of gloss or iridescence. These specimens are in great demand for jewelry making.

Snowflake obsidian fell off the stone

Snowflake obsidian: a polished specimen of “snowflake obsidian”. Image copyright iStockphoto / Martin Novak.

Volcanic glass and obsidian are therefore not synonymous, although both terms can often be freely used. You certainly don’t use “volcanic glass” in place of “obsidian”, but be careful – volcanic glass is not always obsidian.

How Obsidian is Formed?

Obsidian is formed when a volcano’s felted lava cools quickly with minimal crystal growth. Chemicals (sodium silica content) cause increased viscosity, which forms natural lava glass when it dries quickly. Chemical composition is often found at the edges of rhyolytic lava flows considered obsidian. The lack of crystal growth is explained by the inhibition of atomic diffusion through this sticky lava. Obsidian is tough, fragile and amorphous, so it has strong crack corners. The slicing and piercing instruments were previously used and were experimentally used as surgical scalpel blades.

Obsidian is a rock formed by the rapidly cooling lava, the material father. Extensive obsidian formation can occur if felsic magma cools quickly at the corners of a volcanic dome or rift lava stream, or if the lava cools when a sudden touch of water or wind occurs. Obsidian can be intrusive as the felted lava cools at the edges of the deck.

Obsidian consists of about 70% or more silicone (silicon dioxide) that has not crystallized. It is like granite and rhyolite that have also been chemically pre-frozen. Since obsidian is not a mineral crystal, technically it is not a true “stone”. In fact, it is a clotted fluid with small amounts of microscopic and unclean microscopy. Obsidian with a typical hardness of 5 to 5.5 is relatively mild at the level of mineral hardness. In contrast, quartz (crystallized silicon dioxide) has a hardness of 7.0.

Why Obsidian is Black?

Pure obsidian is generally black, although the color differs from the presence of impurities. Jadeite can be light gray to black with iron and other transformation ingredients. Most of the black obsidians are nanoinclusions of magnetite, iron oxide. Very few obsidian specimens are nearly colorless. In some rocks, the incorporation of the mineral cristobalitis into the black glass of tiny yellow radially clustered rocks produces a stained (snowflakes) image.

Obsidian can contain patterns of lava gas bubbles that overlap with the layers formed when the molten rock was cooled. These bubbles can generate thrilling blows like a golden blade (obsidian blade). The inclusion of magnetite nanoparticles that create thin film interference produces an iridescent, rainbow shine. Mexican rainbow colored obsidian contains hedenbergite-oriented nanorods which, by interfering with thin layers, produce a rainbow dispersion effect.

The different colors of obsidian are the result of several factors. There are very few distinct types of obsidian or microscopic mineral crystals. Obsidian red or brown usually produces small crystals or inclusions of hematite or limonite (iron oxide). The tar-black obsidian types likely produce numerous microscopic crystals of minerals such as magnet, hornblende, pyroxene, plagioclase, and biotite in combination with smaller pieces of rock. The distinctive blue, green, purple, or brown hues of rainbow obsidian can be obtained under the microscope of many types of feldspar.

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Recipe for Rotary Tumbling

Coarse-grained step:
Snowflake obsidian is extremely “soft” so you do NOT need to use coarse grit.

Medium Grit Step:
Two medium grain (150/220) tablespoons per pound of rock and ceramic material. Add enough water until it barely covers the rocks. You want 50-60% media and 40-50% obsidian. Let it drum for 5-8 days. Rinse, clean and check the material. Dry longer if a smoother, more shaping effect is desired.

Fine grain step:
If more media is needed to maintain the capacity of the barrel, it should be broken in, not new, rough-edged media. Again, two tablespoons of fine grain (500F) per pound of rock and ceramic material. Add water below the top of the rocks. Fall for five days.

Polish step:
IMPORTANT: Make sure the barrel and stock have been thoroughly cleaned. Any litters carried over from the previous step will likely ruin your shine. Don’t add any more media at this point.

Measure two tablespoons of TXP Polish per pound of rock and ceramic material. Fill with water just below the top of the rocks. Fall for seven days.

Polish as needed:
Jasper, agate and petrified wood usually polish well. However, polishing this material after the polishing step can often improve the gloss of the finished stones. If you want to try polishing to see if it improves the look of your polished stones, complete polishing instructions can be found here.

Vibratory Tumbler Recipe:

Coarse grain (60/90 mesh):
Coarse gravel is not used in the vibrating rock tumbler.

medium grain size (150/220 mesh):
Obsidian is a fragile material that breaks easily or splashes. It is recommended to use a minimum of 50% of ceramic substrates. The use of this medium will help the barrel roll over and help deliver sand to all surfaces of the rough material. The more media, the better the cushioning.

After loading the bowl to the manufacturer’s recommended level, add 1 tablespoon of litter for every two pounds of material, including nutrients, in the bowl. While the cup is running, slowly add water until the material has a thin layer of wet sand and the tumbling in the cup is smooth and fast.

Check the bowl every 8-12 hours to make sure operation is still good. If the action has slowed down, add more water until the action is back to normal. If the mud becomes too thick, it will be necessary to rinse the material and pan completely. After rinsing, add fresh cat litter and water and start mixing again. If you are satisfied with the shape and smoothness of the stones, you end up with a medium grain. Usually 2-3 days for us with this material. Thoroughly clean the material and bowl before moving on to a fine grain.

Fine grain (500F mesh):
Place the material back into the cup cup, then add enough polished ceramic material to bring the load to the manufacturer’s recommended operating level. This will bring you closer to the recommended 50% ceramic substrate. Add one tablespoon of porridge for every two pounds of material in the bowl. Then turn on the cup and slowly add water until the material has a thin layer of wet sand and the tumbling in the bowl is smooth and fast.

Open the bowl every 8-12 hours to check if the operation is still good. We usually work on fine sand for 48 hours. Thoroughly clean the bowl and material before proceeding to the polishing stage.

Polish (# 61 Rapid Polish or TXP):
Put the cleaned material back into the bowl. If necessary, add pre-polished ceramic media to bring the bowl to the operating level recommended by the manufacturer. Add one tablespoon of porridge for every two pounds of material in the bowl. Turn on the cup and slowly add water. Stop adding water when the material has a thin coat of wet varnish and the tumbling is smooth and fast.

As with the sandblasting steps above, open the bowl every 8-12 hours to check the tipping action. Add water if it has slowed down. We found that 48 hours is usually the time it takes to get a good shine in

Polish as needed:
The rough one usually needs great polishing. However, polishing this material after the polishing step can often improve the appearance of the finished stones. If you want to try polishing to see if it improves the look of your polished stones, complete polishing instructions can be found here.

Finished Snowflake Obsidian Tumbled Stones:

If you don’t want to turn this snow obsidian yourself, we usually have medium sized pebbles made of this material for sale for pounds. You will find them here.

medium Grit (150/220 mesh): Obsidian is a delicate material that can be easily crushed or chipped. It is recommended to use a minimum of 50% of ceramic substrates. The use of this medium will help the barrel roll over and help deliver sand to all surfaces of the rough material. The more media, the better the cushioning.

How hard is obsidian

Futures speculation: Black imagination and art
2016
42.1 • 42.2

Sheree Renée Thomas, guest editor
Nisi Shawl, Deputy Guest Editor, Fiction
Isiah Lavender III, associate guest editor, Criticism
Krista Franklin, Assistant Guest Editor, Visual Art

Cover front: Stacey Robinson, The Harbinger
Back cover: Stacey Robinson, Cosmic Listening
Inside: Stacey Robinson, Celebrities

Obsidian Volume 42

** Sample pdf links open in new tabs

To donate and / or subscribe please contact the ISU Publications Department at [email protected] or click here to access our online store!

His Void
Sofia Samatar

Let your light shine before men
Christopher Caldwell

Xhos eyes
Iyanna L. Jones

Mahogany Soul
Sandra Jackson-Rock

Black magic
Cairo Amani

Mother Earth’s Call
Artur Flowers

Still life with hammers, broom and brick paver
Tochi Onyebuchi

Ten thousand hours
Alex Jennings

Trapped Whispers (From Cell Therapy)
Regina N. Bradley (story) and John Jennings (illustrations)

POETRY
Aphasia and other states of restraint
Johnette Marie Ellis

The silence of family trees
Harry Reed

The leader calls all ionized matter by his name
their past fell at my feet
for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life
He himself was not the light; He only came as a witness of the light
Sam’s metta

Shift classification, organs
Alana Benoit

Beans between E and I
LaShawn M. Wanak

Mable and Othello
Whodun’s mom

Reading from Adire Cloth
Bound to the Land (Zuihitsu)
Jacqueline Johnson

Red Giant Heartthrob
Bianca Spriggs

daffodils
Monica A. Hand

Otherwise Oblivion: The Story of the New Old Black Resistance from the Future
Derek Lee McPhatter

wall
M. Asli Dukan

About alien abductions, pocket universes and slave narratives
Isaiah Lavender III

Slavery & the Afrofuture w Samuelu R. Delany’s Stars in My Pocket Like Grains of Sand
Dorota Stringer

Afrofuturism, cyborgs and the fate of imperialism in Bill Campbell’s Sunshine Patriots
Jonathan Harvey

Afrofuturism 2.0 and the Black Speculative Arts Movement: Comments on the Manifesto
Reynaldo Anderson

VISUAL ARTS PORTFOLIO

Black object / white smoke
Alexandria Eregbu

Untitled # 3
Jermaine Harmon

Reflection (after the flood)
Meeting
Ivan Forde

Moose
We have another one
Stacey Robinson

Narcissus: My partner and me
Astronaut: The American Dream
Lyric prince

Masquerades Fortune aka Masquerade. Cotton. Diana.
Soraya Jean-Louis McElroy

Obsidian: Literature & Arts in the African Diaspora is a peer-reviewed journal published by the Illinois State University Department of English Publication, an Illinois corporate and political organization, and a recognized charity 501 (c) (3) and non-profit organization.

Obsidian: Literature and Art in the African Diaspora
Obsidian, Illinois State University
Williams Hall Annex
Normal, IL 61790
United States

Illinois State University was built on the land of many indigenous nations. These lands were the traditional birthright of indigenous peoples who were forcibly displaced and faced centuries of struggles for survival and identity in the wake of expropriation and displacement. We would like to admit that our campus is located in the lands that were once home to the Illinois, Peoria and Miami and later due to colonial encroach and displacement to Fox, Potawatomi, Sauk, Shawnee, Winnebago, Ioway, Mascouten, Piankashaw, Wea and the Nations Kickapoo. We also pay tribute to those indigenous peoples whom we may have excluded in this recognition due to erasure and historical inaccuracies.

Obsidian: Literature and Art in the African Diaspora Obsidian, Illinois State University Williams Hall Annex Normal, IL 61790 USA

Black Obsidian Carat Sizes

Obsidian gemstones can vary greatly in carat weight. Unlike many other gemstones, beautiful and practical obsidian stones can be found in very large sizes, up to hundreds of carats.

Obsidian is moderately heavy for its size, and an oval 1.00 carat stone is typically about 2 “x 1.5” x 0.5 “in size”.

A black obsidian stone of these dimensions can cost hundreds of dollars, depending on its clarity, shape, and cut. Pieces up to 8-10 inches in size can be cut and sold.

How To Choose A Black Obsidian Gemstone

Smooth black obsidian creates stunning jewelry. See these rings here.

Choosing black obsidian is primarily a matter of personal preference – what size, carat weight, cut, and shape you are looking for, as well as how polished and refractive you want it to be.

There are several varieties of black obsidian, depending on whether it is lightly colored or not, and also on how glassy it looks.

For example, the Apache’s Tear is a type of black obsidian that is formed when it is thrown into the air during its formation, resulting in a much less glassy and much rougher appearance.

Snowflake obsidian ring

Snowflake obsidian is also a popular variety of black obsidian. Here, on the surface of the obsidian, there are white spots and specks similar in appearance to snowflakes. This happens when quartz crystals form on the surface of an obsidian rock and the formation of the crystals removes the glassy appearance of the rock in which they form.

As we mentioned earlier, black obsidian can have almost unlimited uses in jewelry and crafting. All kinds of jewelry can be made from black obsidian – rings, pendants, bracelets, earrings, necklaces, earrings and much more.

2. Mix The Resin

obsidian resin block

To give the resin its purple color, she mixes two separate batches: one with purple pigment and glowing powder, and the other only with pigment and resin. Since the resin he works with takes about 30 minutes to harden, he can take his time and experiment with the amount of pigment and glowing powder in each mixture. Both parts of the resin now look bright, but will darken when mixed with pieces of obsidian.

3. Pour On The Layers

obsidian resin block

Patrick spreads the resin in layers to avoid air bubbles, alternating between a translucent and opaque mixture as you work from the bottom of the container upwards. When she adds layers of resin, she makes sure to mix multiple pieces of obsidian to make the obsidian stand out and resin to fill the space between the rocks.

Cleaning of black obsidian, as well as jewelry with pieces of obsidian, should be done with great care. Since obsidian is essentially a type of glass, it can be easily broken or chipped and must be handled with care. Obsidian only ranks 5-6 on the Mohs hardness scale, making it a relatively soft stone.

Can you use obsidian knives?

If you just cook in the kitchen, I don’t understand why you need an obsidian knife.

Find the right kitchen knife or buy a small set of knives and you’ll have everything you need.

For hunters and outdoor enthusiasts who process game, or butchers who handle meat themselves, I can see what such a knife is for.

After making your first cuts, obsidian knives can make skinning very easy and fast for you.

While steel knives will be too sharp (yes, a knife might be too sharp) to skin an animal properly without cutting / piercing the skin, an obsidian knife will work just fine.

But aren’t obsidian knives sharper than stainless steel knives? They are, and definitely, but they won’t perform on leather in the same way as a stainless steel knife – and you get the speed advantage.

Final Words

In short, obsidian knives are one of the sharpest, if not the sharpest, knife set found today. These knives can be up to 300-500 times sharper than the sharpest stainless steel knife you know, which is a testament to how well made naturally they are.

However, there is a trade-off between sharpness and durability when making knives. Although sharp, obsidian knives cannot withstand the daily use that stainless steel knives undergo.

Consequently, it is more economical and wise to use stainless steel in place of obsidian when mass-producing knives.

Show me your knife and I’ll tell you who you are. I know my knives – maybe not as well as my mom – but I know enough to write helpful guides for you. Enjoy!

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